Quality of warhead triggers questioned

It meant the warheads, after testing that makes the original trigger unsuitable for reuse, could be reassembled with a new trigger and put back into service.

The Project on Government Oversight says it was told by some Los Alamos scientists that the trigger certified last July and known as the W88 pit needed 72 waivers from the specifications used for the original triggers, including 53 engineering-related changes.

Since last summer’s announcement, the Los Alamos lab has made 10 additional W88 triggers. This process is viewed by metallurgists as producing a stronger product.

The government acknowledges differences between the old triggers and their replacements.

“With this large number of waivers, how is it possible to objectively tell whether the pit will even work?” said Danielle Brian, executive director of the group that monitors nuclear weapons-related activities. These means included small-scale plutonium tests, technical data from past underground tests, and computer codes and models.

In a warhead’s detonation, a conventional explosive packaged around the pit compresses the plutonium inward, creating enough pressure for an atomic chain reaction. halted in 1992, and through a different process than the replacements. So far, nine have earned the “diamond stamp” from the National Nuclear Security Administration, which oversees the lab’s programs.

Resting atop the Trident II missile, the W88 warhead is among the mainstays of the country’s submarine-based nuclear arsenal. The scientist spoke on condition of anonymity because of the sensitive nature of the issue.

Last summer, the first replacement plutonium trigger in 18 years received “diamond stamp” approval signaling it was ready for use in a warhead. The result is a a massive hydrogen blast.

At least one other replacement pit required 71 specification waivers, a Los Alamos scientist indirectly involved in the production process told The Associated Press. She posed that question in a letter last Friday to Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman.

A watchdog group now is raising questions about whether the replacement triggers, also known as pits, can be guaranteed to be as reliable as those already in some 400 W88 warheads. The original triggers were made with the benefit of underground nuclear testing, which the U.S. Such approval means they are ready to use.

Precise manufacture of the trigger is essential.. That, in turn, creates the high temperatures and pressure to ignite a “secondary” nuclear component. For years, however, testing the warhead’s components to ensure the weapon produces the intended blast instead of a fizzle has been complicated by a lack of replacement plutonium triggers.

The new ones were made by using a mold to cast the grapefruit-size plutonium sphere. The last of the original triggers were manufactured in the late 1980s.

Any variation or flaw in the pit could cause a warhead not to detonate properly or to detonate with less explosive power than expected.

Because the United States no longer conducts underground nuclear tests, the Los Alamos scientists had to rely on other sources to replicate the original triggers and guarantee that the replacements would be as reliable as the old. To scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, that was a milestone to celebrate. The original triggers, all made at the now-closed Rocky Flats facility in Colorado, were hammered into precise form

Are ‘Mini-Nukes’ The New Big Thing?

conducted its last nuclear test in 1992, and while the White House opposes the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty — which the U.S. Last year, the U.S. Nelson.

CBSNews.com’s Jarrett Murphy takes a look at the prospects for the U.S. ET Sunday.

AP Photo/Canadian Press/Tim Krochak

The ban — named after sponsors Elizabeth Furse, D-Ore., retired, and John Spratt, D-S.C. wants to stop proliferation.

But the administration says smaller nuclear arms may eventually be needed to deal with the emerging threat of rogue states hoarding weapons of mass destruction.

Copyright 2003 CBS. arsenal, the submarine-launched Mk-5 holds eight W88 warheads of 475 kilotons each.

A kiloton is equal to the explosive force of one thousand tons of TNT. policy on nuclear weapons, which has included:

Bunker busters — For the second year in a row, the Energy Department is requesting $15 million to study the need for a Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP).

Supporters say these weapons might be necessary to deal with so-called “hard and deeply buried targets” in rogue states and terrorist camps, of which there might be 10,000 in the world.

Defense officials said in 2002 that at present, the U.S could go from the decision to test to a trial run in two to three years. development of low-yield nuclear weapons.

The Bush administration may get permission to create kinder, gentler or at least smaller nuclear weapons if Congress overturns a ban on doing so.

The defense appropriations bill now winding its way through the Hill contains a clause revoking the 1993 Spratt-Furse amendment, which prohibits the development of so-called “low-yield” nuclear weapons – bombs that pack a punch of less than five kilotons.. All rights reserved.

The Foster Panel, which studied the testing issue last year, recommended improvements that would allow a test within three months to a year of deciding to do so. “Unless we do a lot more research and development and we find some quantum breakthrough in conventional systems, to go deep is going to require a nuclear capability.”

A memo obtained by a British newspaper indicates that at a conference this summer, Defense and Energy department officials will consider questions like: “What is the uncertainty in confidence and potential risk threshold for a test recommendation–what would demand a test?”

The Little Boy bomb dropped on Hiroshima delivered around 15 kilotons. In the modern U.S. has signed but not ratified — the administration says it has no plans to conduct a test. Edward Kennedy, the administration has budgeted $700 million for studying how testing might resume.

“One way you ensure that there are no safe havens is to be able to go deep,” said Armed Services Committee chairman Rep. arsenal. Dianne Feinstein, a California Democrat, asked recently.

By Jarrett Murphy

“Nuclear weapons have a unique ability to destroy both agent containers and (Chemical and Biological Weapons),” reads a 2001 Pentagon study.

Announcing its approval of the bill Friday, the Senate Armed Services committee stressed that nothing in the repeal means it has authorized “the testing, acquisition, or deployment of a low-yield nuclear weapon.”

The move to clear the legal hurdles on manufacturing mini-nukes is part of a broad review of U.S. Two had been recovered and three were still missing as of 5 p.m. — did not prohibit designing a testing device with a yield below five kilotons, modifying an existing weapon for safety reasons or conducting research and development necessary “to address proliferation concerns.”

“How can we effectively seek to dissuade others from developing nuclear weapons while we are going forward with the development of new nuclear weapons ourselves?” Sen. According to Sen. Others contend that making more bombs is a bad idea if the U.S. D. Last May, he and Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed to slash their active arsenals by nearly two-thirds, to 1700 to 2200 warheads each, within 10 years. “nuclear strike capabilities” must be geared towards, according to a leaked copy of the report.

The 1993 low-yield ban that the current defense bill would delete stated that “it shall be the policy of the United States not to conduct research and development which could lead to the production by the United States of a new low-yield nuclear weapon, including a precision low-yield warhead.”

But some members of Congress believe conventional weapons could do the same job, and worry that mini-nukes would blur the line between conventional and nuclear weapons. Five people watching the surf from Hurricane Bill were swept out to sea at Acadia National Park in Maine.

At the same time, however, last month the United States produced a plutonium pit — the core of a fission bomb — for the first time in 14 years. Crouch, the assistant secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, said in a briefing last year.

But some experts contend that no bomb of any size could go very deep, because the heavier the bomb, the harder the impact — and the harder the impact, the more likely the bomb would explode before it reached sufficient depth.

Testing — The U.S. Duncan Hunter, R.-Calif., last May. Other efforts include developing lasers and computers to simulate aspects of nuclear tests.

Nuclear Stockpiles: President Bush has agreed to dramatic reductions in the number of nuclear weapons in the U.S. spent more in real terms on atomic defense activities than since 1962.

Strategy — In its Nuclear Posture Review last year, the administration identified Iraq, Iran, Syria, Libya, North Korea as countries where “contingencies” could arise that U.S. A bomb of just one kiloton, detonated 30 meters below the earth, can open a crater wider than a football field, according to Princeton physicist Robert W.

However, the administration is paying increasing attention to the possibility that it might at some point have to resume testing if there were a question about the reliability of the nation’s stockpile. According to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the move “restores the nation’s ability to make nuclear weapons,” and was needed so the Energy Department could replace pits found unsafe or destroyed through regular check-ups.

CAROUSEL – People watch as water breaches a rock wall at Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia, Canada, Sunday, August 23, 2009. “If you were to have a problem with a weapon system that you needed to rectify using a test, you would want to be able to do that faster,” J

CNN – Report: Stolen data gives China advanced nuclear know-how

“The world is a lot less safer today as a consequence of these thefts.”

“In many cases, a little piece of information might seem innocuous, but if you collect enough of them through the so-called matrix technique … EDT (0242 GMT)

“What the PRC (People’s Republic of China) has stolen has enabled them to jump over decades of incremental development that were necessary, for example, for the United States,” said Cox.

The sharpest criticism for the theft of U.S. State Department issues travel warning for China

May 10, 1999

“It does make one wonder how it is, how others who possessed this information could so readily have dismissed it, or not acted upon it,” Cox said.

The report also reveals allegations that China stole design information about U.S. nuclear labs, stealing secrets about the U.S. intelligence has determined the technology espionage by the Chinese, dating back to the late 1970s and continuing through the 1980s and ’90s, “has leaped, in a handful of years, from 1950s-era strategic nuclear capabilities to the more modern thermonuclear weapon design.”

Also among the purloined blueprints for weapons of mass destruction: the W-88 warhead, described as “the most sophisticated nuclear weapon the United States has ever built.”

The report credits Energy Secretary Bill Richardson for making long-needed security improvements to the nation’s vulnerable nuclear labs, run by the Department of Energy.

“It means that in addition to paying for our own defense, we are actually paying to arm a potential adversary,” Cox said.

“Some of the most significant thefts have occurred during the last four years,” Cox said.

“… insatiable’

Details of the Cox report have been trickling out for weeks amid a growing criticism of the Clinton administration’s response to fix the security lapse after it was exposed in 1995.

The CIA later determined that the person who turned over the document worked for Chinese intelligence.


Shelby: Reno should resign over China espionage probe

May 23, 1999

Report: China benefited from stolen nuclear secrets

May 20, 1999

Congressman calls alleged Chinese spying ‘grave’

May 16, 1999

Sources: Report finds China stole ‘sensitive’ nuclear data

May 14, 1999

Reno defends computer-search caution in Los Alamos case

May 13, 1999

Senate spotlights nuclear security lapses

May 12, 1999

U.S. nuclear arsenal — including those for the MX Peacekeeper and Minuteman III missiles.

May 24, 1999

Web posted at: 10:42 p.m. “To advertise in some cases something about their strength that they want you to know; in other cases, to promote disinformation.”


In March, Richardson fired a longtime scientist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, Wen Ho Lee, because of security violations as well as suspicions of espionage.

The report concludes: Chinese “penetration of our national weapons laboratories spans at least the past several decades and almost certainly continues today.”

But following the failures of some of those launches, U.S. “Ballistic and space launch programs have long been intertwined.”

‘China’s appetite … satellite manufacturers Loral Corp. design information during the next decade, according to a congressional report on Chinese nuclear espionage that will be released officially Tuesday.

All of the weapons could target the United States.

“It’s not good news,” he said.

Note: Pages will open in a new browser window

According to the report, U.S.

The report by his committee said “China’s appetite for information and technology appears to be insatiable and the energy devoted to the task enormous.”

Those weapons “may be tested in 1999 and could be deployed as soon as 2002,” the report states.

“There are a number of reasons that intelligence services direct information this way,” Cox said. companies seeking waivers to launch satellites on Chinese rockets.

WASHINGTON (CNN) — China could begin production of advanced thermonuclear weapons based on stolen U.S. submarine radar technology and illegally obtained secrets about U.S. you can learn a great deal about military matters in the United States,” Cox said.


Chinese Embassy to the U.S.

Office of the Director of Central Intelligence

Consulate General of the People’s Republic of China

China Today

Department of Energy

Department of Justice

  • Attorney General Janet Reno

The White House

  • National Security Council

  • Biography of Samuel Berger

Los Alamos National Laboratory

According to the Cox report, China penetrated U.S. and Hughes Electronics allegedly gave China unauthorized design information. nuclear secrets is directed toward the Clinton administration and how slowly it reacted when word of the espionage surfaced.

‘It’s not good news’

Bob Franken and Pierre Thomas contributed to this report.

According to investigators, the CIA first learned of the extent of the Chinese espionage in 1995 when a Chinese national approached the agency and turned over a secret Chinese government document.

“It means that we’re going to be preparing ourselves to defend against American technology used against us,” said Rep. Such information would likely find its way into the PRC’s ballistic missile program,” the congressional report said. Christopher Cox (R-California), chairman of the House select committee that conducted the year-long investigation.

Cox also has accused China of obtaining information through the use of “front companies” in the United States — a method he said is “far broader than previously realized.”

External sites are not endorsed by CNN Interactive.

Chinese knowledge increased by decades

. neutron bomb and every warhead in the U.S. missile guidance systems through satellite launch deals with American companies.

The House investigative committee was formed in the wake of accusations that campaign contributions might have influenced the Clinton administration to give favorable trade treatment to U.S

W88 warhead program performs successful tests

Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration. — The first flight and drop tests for the latest variant of the W88 nuclear warhead are providing data for Sandia National Laboratories to validate designs, improve computer modeling and update component specifications.

Sandia will use vibration and shock measurements from the test to update specifications for components in the weapon, he said. (Sandia National Laboratories) Click on the thumbnail for a high-resolution image

The two successful tests, which were conducted this summer, provide data for the program, the W88 ALT 370 (alteration), to move forward, said Tim Edwards, manager for the program’s technical basis and qualification activities.

Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S.

The June CRAFT test was the first of several planned flight tests to demonstrate the upgraded system’s performance. CRAFT demonstrated how the radar performed during re-entry through plasma generated by the hypersonic speeds at which the warhead travels.

“The weapon is not required to function after that, just to stay safe,” Edwards said.

The new radar functioned as expected after launch on a Trident II missile from a Navy submarine, Edwards said. It also represented a milestone: the first flight test unit Sandia and its partners, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Kansas City Plant (KCP) and Pantex, delivered to the Navy for full-scale testing under the program.

Sandia National Laboratories performed a drop test for the W88 ALT 370 program, designed to replicate a crane accidentally dropping the re-entry body onto a concrete surface. With main facilities in Albuquerque, N.M., and Livermore, Calif., Sandia has major RD responsibilities in national security, energy and environmental technologies and economic competitiveness.

ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. An abnormal environment is one that is unexpected, such as an accident.

Sandia news media contact: Sue Holmes, sholmes@sandia.gov, 505-844-6362

The Critical Radar Arming and Fuzing Test (CRAFT) was the first flight test of a prototype radar for the W88 ALT 370. The test was conducted at Sandia’s 185-foot Drop Tower Facility, using the same handling gear a crane would use to move the weapon. Using an unarmed re-entry body, Sandia conducted the test in partnership with LANL, KCP and Pantex at Sandia’s 185-foot Drop Tower Facility, using the same handling gear a crane would use to move the weapon, making the test as realistic as possible.. Sandia and its partners are analyzing results to validate requirements and radar design.

A month later, the first drop test of the W88 ALT 370 program mimicked a crane accidentally dropping the re-entry body onto a concrete surface to develop evidence that it would remain safe during an accident. It also will use the information to validate computer models designed to apply the results to other drop scenarios, since it’s not possible to replicate every possible accident in tests.

It was the W88 program’s first abnormal drop test since the system’s original qualification test in 1987

FUN88 Has Now Taken a Majority Stake in BETNGO | Reuters

BETNGO is particularly strong in poker and is part of the ipoker

network. BETNGO offers casino, poker and sportsbetting opportunities to

its customers. BETNGO’s geographical reach complements that of FUN88 and

the companies will work together in developing exciting new products for

their players.

FUN88 Has Now Taken a Majority Stake in BETNGO

Nathan Walker Director of Welton Holdings Limited, operator of FUN88

said “We are excited to be working with BETNGO whom we have known for

some time and look forward to a continued successful relationship with

BETNGO in the future.”

For Media Enquiries

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. The founders of BETNGO have over 30 years of experience in the

gaming sector and BETNGO like FUN88 runs a popular affiliate system.

FUN88 is delighted to announce that the owners of FUN88 have now taken a

majority stake in ILA Curacao NV the operator of the very successful www.betngo.com


Vietnam: gambling on gambling

Last month, Pinnacle agreed to buy a 26 percent stake in Asian Coast Development for $95m.

With Vietnam battling inflation and low confidence in its banking system, the government may be increasingly tempted to gamble on allowing more casinos.

Related Reading:

Foreign money transforms Vietnam resort city, FT

Genting Singapore beats estimates, FT

Long odds for Macao plan to diversify, FT. Earlier this year, Michael Leven, chief operating officer of Las Vegas Sands, which built the large Marina Bay Sands casino in Singapore, came to Vietnam to talk to the government about opportunities here.

There are currently only 199 licensed gambling venues serving the four billion people who inhabit South and Central Asia, compared to around 1,600 casinos in North American and 1,200 in Europe, according to Asian Coast Development, which is building Vietnam’s first large-scale casino resorts.

One will be managed by NYSE-listed MGM Resorts International (MGM:NYQ), which owns some of Las Vegas’ most well-known casinos, while the other will be run by Pinnacle Entertainment (PNK:NYQ), another NYSE-listed group with casinos in Nevada, Louisiana, Indiana and Missouri. But the casino market is set to be transformed by Asian Coast Development, a Canadian developer backed by Harbinger Capital, a US hedge fund, which is building two large casino resorts on the beachfront Ho Tram strip, 80 miles southeast of Ho Chi Minh City.

Citi wrote:

But foreign investors sense the winds may be changing.

Genting (GENTING:KLS), the Malaysian gaming group that built the other casino in Singapore, Resorts World Sentosa, is planning to build a casino resort in central Quang Nam province in a joint venture with VinaCapital, one of the longest-running foreign investment firms in Vietnam.

In a recent note to clients, analysts at Citi argued that with Asia so under-served, proposed new casino resorts in Cambodia, the Philippines and Vietnam will “generate renewed interest in the space.”

From Singaporeans playing illegal football pools through a telephone broker in Malaysia to Vietnamese gambling over cards at a pool hall, there is clearly strong demand for gambling in much of Southeast Asia.

While Europe and America have been fretting about casino banking, Southeast Asia appears to be banking on casinos.

Following the highly profitable legalisation of casinos in Singapore, which will see the city-state rival Las Vegas as the world’s second biggest gambling market after Macao next year, other Southeast Asian nations are moving down a similar path.

The MGM Grand casino, which will is scheduled to start a phased opening from 2013, will eventually have 90 gambling tables and 1,000 slot machines.

The Vietnamese government, which frequently campaigns against “social evils” such as illegal gambling, prostitution and alcoholism, remains nervous about opening the field for more casinos.

While these markets will likely remain smaller than Singapore and even Malaysia, we sense they could provide better growth prospects over time, albeit with added country risk/limited liquidity.

It will dwarf existing outfits such as the Silver Shores International Resort in Danang, which euphemistically calls its small gambling centre an “adult entertainment centre with financial rewards” rather than a casino, much in the same way that Singapore prefers to call its casinos “integrated resorts”.

But regional governments long resisted calls from US and other casino companies to allow them to open up, arguing that legalising gambling would cause social problems.

Vietnam has allowed a number of small casinos to operate in recent years, so long as they serve only foreigners and keep a relatively low profile

I caught my boyfriend looking at porn.. well i found it under the history on my google desktop and he swore on my life and on our relationship that he hadn’t.until i showed it to him.. is this normal.. is this right? we’ve been dating for 4 years

You should not patch the cracks online, watching porn.

I took the computer and went in the bathroom, locked the door, and checked out all his “history” and “caches” from both his Safari and Firefox internet browsers. But I can’t forget situations that have to do with distrust.

Good luck to all!

I don’t see any difference between watching porn online and going to a strip club to see girls dancing naked. He immediately started breathing heavier and sweating even though the A/C was full on.

Thanks to all for reading my long message. We don’t go to mass or do all the catholic rituals, we just have that catholic upbringing from having being in private catholic schools. And THEN, take it from there. He went blank, and said: “I haven’t visited any porn sites”. I’m just an average woman, when it comes down to all that. At 5am! he followed me in his car and took me home. I’ve even sacrificed career dreams to support his, and this porn issue makes me feel like I should have never done that.

This is a very common issue in relationships, and that’s why men try to justify it as being something “every guy does”. It’s hard to realize this is the beginning of the end of this relationship, at this point in my life. My partner knew that very well.

It’s a very hard subject to discuss, as everyone has different views of what a healthy relationship and sexual relationship should be. Then, he woke up, and asked me what was it I was looking at. I’ve never seen a man so in love with me before, who always really put me first. Than, he said, “we’ll i watched it once before”. And have given my partners the same.

Please post any replies identifying the message with “REPLY” on the first paragraph of your reply.

Instead, they should talk to their partners about it as a couple, to see how the other feels about it. This, assuming you didn’t go for a lap dance or more at the strip club, or started chatting with girls online.

I’ve always wanted to work elsewhere, and haven’t done so to support his career dreams at this time (we planned to tackle my career dreams together later on, and tackle his first). What might be ok to someone may not be ok to someone else, due to their beliefs and upbringing.

Me personally…I grew up in a catholic family were also, trust and respect for others is everything. While in the car he said: “I did it because I was just curious”. I saw it, as I was looking for another link in the “History” I had visited before, that had nothing to do with porn.

Mind you, all the sites were girls-girls, girls-guys, and one of transexuals having sex!!!!

I kept asking him, and he denied it. I wasn’t looking for it. I rather not waste my time or his anymore, and be in a relationship in those terms.

Like most people, I’ve had pre-marital sex with all my partners (I’m not married) I’m just not as liberal as other people who don’t mind having orgies at home, kissing other guys/girls, taking many drugs, etc. When you do something behind someone else’s back, it’s because you know in your heart it might upset the other person.. I don’t trust him the same way, and to me, trust is everything. (Hello, who doesn’t?! Living 100% under catholic beliefs is rarely seen anymore).

It’s very selfishl and immature for guys to think it’s ok only because “guys think like that”.

In a relationship, I only ask TRUST, COMMUNICATION, and RESPECT. I NEVER negotiate with not getting that. I’m 40, and it’s hard to not know now were my life may be heading without him. To what I said: “Maybe more like 30 times and counting?!…it’s right here in the “History”!” And then he started looking like “shit, I got caught”.

This happened right next to him, while I was using his laptop, and he was sleeping next to me. Remember, I only ask for TRUST, RESPECT, and COMMUNICATION in a relationship. I was also looking to let it all out while writing it. I came out of the bathroom, took my things and left. Still, I have experimented with things catholisism says you should not. I said: “The porn sited you’ve visited”. This got me even more mad.

We were supposed to go to NYC together on vacation 4 days later. You can call it conservative, or you can call me wild child too…it depends on what your core beliefs are.

I believe all guys who do so behind their partners back are “virtual cheaters”. Specially, because he denied it when I asked him the first time. I rather not live with that stress, or have to bring up this situation everytime I get mad or angry at him for something else (I know I will do that). When someone breaks my trust, I rather not be with that person anymore. I don’t feel comfortable with him anymore. But, it’ll be really hard for me, as we were planning to do that together. He had many visits to porn sites. And if you don’t have a healthy stable relationship, you should discuss it with your partner first to fix up the cracks TOGETHER.

We’ve been together for 2 years, and had the most healthy and beautiful relationship. How would they feel if their girlfriends do the sam, watching or chatting to guys online?

Why do guys never mention they were watching porn online to their partners?…because they know it’ll bother them! That’s why they hide it.

I just found out my boyfriend watches porn sites often, by looking at his computer “History”. Everyone has different needs. now, I feel like I should just go on with my life, and go live my career and personal dreams elsewhere.

I felt so mad and betrayed. I decided not to go. I said: “Don’t treat me as if I’m stupid, you can’t deny it, it’s right here, in your “History”. You’re looking at girls naked: one is dancing in front of you almost naked (and you don’t touch her), the other is fuxxxxx a guy/girl naked in your computer, and you don’t touch her. Not do it behind their partners back. I need someone to talk to about this, but feel ashamed to tell others what my boyfriend (or ex-boyfriend) did.

Doing this not only causes distrust from the other person, but also inadequate feelings and insecurities. It’s the same principle. Because it’s an easier way out for them to say that, than admit they were hiding something from their partners.

When you’re in a happy and healthy sexual relationship you don’t have the need to look elsewhere. You’re making the other person feel like he/she is not good enough.

It’s very sad, as I am deeply in love with him, and always thought this was the man I will be with forever. I feel totally lost, at a moment in my life were I most need my partner’s support, as I have several relatives in my life who are dealing with serious health issues.

I know if I stay with him, it’ll always hunt me that he may be going online to watch porn, or that he may be lying to me on other things

Watch Dean Potter’s most high-profile jumps and climbs

The jump was the longest BASE jump ever, covering about 9,000 vertical feet and nearly 4 miles.

Watch Dean Potter’s most high-profile jumps and climbs – LA Times

Potter’s life as an extreme climber was well documented on video and his filmed adventures, edited for the social media age, contributed to the fascination with the sport.

Follow @kurtisalee and email kurtis.lee@latimes.com

Copyright(C) 2015, Los Angeles Times

Last year, Potter returned to Eiger — this time with his dog, Whisper, outfitted in goggles and strapped to hisback. At times, the climbs appeared more extreme than the jumps. Here are some of Potter’s most high-profile jumps captured on film:

Potter also dabbled in paragliding and he posted his first paragliding adventure on his birthday last year.

For many of his BASE jumps, Potter free-climbed to some of the cliffs he plunged off. A lifelong passion for extreme sports ended in climber Dean Potter’s death on Saturdaywhen Potter, 43, and his friend Graham Hunt, 29, died in a BASE jumping accident in Yosemite National Park.

Also in 2006, Potter did a free solo climb of a route on Yosemite’s Glacier Point called Heaven. The two tandem jumped off a ledge, and the video can make people queasy to say the least, but Whisperseems to be OK.

In 2009, Potter jumped off a cliff on Switzerland’s Eiger Mountain, flying for nearly three minutes in a wing suit. In July 2006, he climbed the Reticent Wall, one of the hardest routes on El Capitan in Yosemite.. Images from this climb that have been viewed around the world

Yorkshire lasses and their lads: sexuality, sexual customs, and gender antagonisms in Anglo-American working-class culture.

pp. Most female workers in the worsted factories would marry

and soon after drop out of the work force. “It was pretty early, but I haven’t a single regret,

except that I might have started sooner.” After three years, they

married, and his wife left her mill job. 202-22, 234-5.

60. Busfield, “Skill and the Sexual Division of Labour,”

in Employers and Labour, pp. 31-3, and as the major theme of

the novella “The Lion and the Eagle” and “The Tongue-tied


11. Elizabeth Roberts, A Woman’s Place: An Oral History of

Working-Class Women 1890-1940 (Oxford, 1984), p. (62) Others like Hedley

Smith’s mother Alice Collins Smith advanced to skilled jacquard

weaving. 57 and Jack Reynolds, The Great

Paternalist: Titus Salt and the Growth of Nineteenth-Century Bradford

(New York, 1983), pp. Women weavers, such as his mother

and grandmother, were not welcome in Yorkshire trade unionism. 61.

Working-class Yorkshire immigrants both in Hedley Smith’s

Briardale stories and as labor activists in North Providence mill

villages regarded themselves as culturally distinct from and vastly

superior to American values and New England mill practices. He will carry this lesson into the mill and the union where

he will face those same female weavers on new grounds of respect tinged

with fear. But all this not unwholesome and perhaps

traditional female bawdiness–there was a suggestions of mythology,

ancient worship, folklore, about that queer “sunning” ritual–was far

removed from cynical whoring. 39 and Sally Greaves in “The Wise

Child”, pp. King,” p. Blewett, Constant Turmoil: The Politics

of Industrial Life in Nineteenth-Century New England (Amherst, 2000),

Chapter 7.

88. 92-6, 108, 110.

14. candidate, University of Leeds, work in

progress, cited by permission, e-mail, March 16, 2005.

46. 74-85.

27. Sian Moore, “Women, Industrialization and Protest in

Bradford, West Yorkshire, 1780-1845″ (Ph.D. 57-66, 136-7, 153.

101. Smith acquired his knowledge of women weavers, courtship

customs, and working–class sexuality from village gossip and from his

connections among men at the Greystone Social Club. 33-4, and “The Mill Folk.” “Middle-class

Yorkshire immigrants often expressed scorn for American ways, “King

George’s Idea,” in More Yankee Yorkshiremen, pp. In the course of an hour or two,

however, they seem to have so thoroughly possessed themselves of every

detail respecting you which could possibly interest them, that they

grow somewhat less attentive to your movements, and you recover a

portion of your natural ease. (42) Such individual acts however were very risky.

13. 153-70, esp. (10)

Analysis of working-class female European immigrants to the United

States at the turn of the century based on ethnic fiction set in that

era offers some glimpses of female sexuality. (53) Thus they drove many

of the more experienced and skilled married weavers out of the mill

workforce. 47-49.

9. I

don’t bother wi’ t’ lads.” (29) Exhausted by the

war’s compulsory overtime, Maggie left the mill. These conflicts included sexually charged customs and

behaviors, such as the ritual humiliation of men by working women, and

new meanings for female agency in premarital sexual activities. Maggie went into domestic service, Newbury, Picking Up the

Threads, pp. ix-xii and chapter 6. Historians find evidence on migrant working-

class female sexual agency elusive, for example, Christine Harzig,

“The Role of German Women in the German-American Working-Class

Movement in Late Nineteenth-Century New York,” Journal of American

Ethnic History (Spring, 1989): 87-107.

52. H. 57-70.

Sometimes, when I finished earlier than usual at the office and walked

home, the route I preferred took me past one of the largest mills in

the district, often just when the women were coming out. J. For the dismissal of “book nonsense,” see the

characters of Joth Booth, “The Conscience of Mr. 270 (Feb 1997): 89-94.

Lowell, MA 01854

12. The

threatening power of female sexuality, exercised collectively, openly,

and dramatically, was a reminder to all that the private world of

sexuality and the workplace were deeply intertwined but not always at

the expense of women.

Department of History

17. Also see, Ittmann, Work, Gender and Family, pp. Indeed the women did appear to

give out the worst. 37-8, The

Yankee Yorkshireman and David Greaves, “The Wise Child,” pp.

56, 63-4, More Yankee Yorkshiremen. 4

(Autumn 1977):62-3.

Despite the condemnation of working wives by the middle class and

trade unionists, older married women weavers in Yorkshire, beginning in

the 1870s, forged a direct connection between family limitation and

their subsequent return to the workforce. (46) Mid-nineteenth-century paternalists in the West Riding

provided domestic training to mill lasses who were expected to drop out

of the workforce once married. (11) Karen Majewski’s

study of ethnic fiction explores the uses of sexuality in the shaping of

a Polish-American identity. (100)

In choosing new lads to be sexually humiliated, women workers in

both Bradford, Yorkshire and “Briardale,” Rhode Island

challenged their marginalization in the textile factory, friendly

society, and the trade union. Blackburn, In and Out the Windows, pp. Smith’s mother Alice, a skilled worsted weaver

with little formal education, had made sure her two sons were educated

in Yorkshire and suffered the mill villagers’ scorn for it. Reynolds and K. Customs involving assertive female

sexuality among the Yorkshire working class, such as the sunning ritual,

represented a response to specific circumstances in the turn of the

twentieth century worsted industry that reflected the antagonistic

relationships of class and sex. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

My thanks to Carol Morgan, Suzy Sinke, Peter Blewett, Felicity

Harrison, Joanna Bornat, and the two anonymous reviewers for valuable

suggestions and helpful comments. Priestley, Margin Released, p. And

it’s been a lot happier and more sensible life than tewing your

guts out at a loom all day, and then coming home to breed babbies all

night to follow on in your footsteps at the mill.” (19) Martha

Denby’s experiences as a weaver shaped both her sexual

experimentation and her rebellion.

The memoirs of Yorkshire-born writer J. “Reach

us the oil can here.” They all have agreed. (5) Smith, a naturalized American

citizen, lived and worked in a bi-cultural society, but his fiction

focused on the stubborn resilience of homeland culture. And their judgments

denigrating the size of his penis are cutting indeed. Knight, Women and Abortion,” pp. In nineteenth-century Yorkshire, young

females were systematically denied access to skills in the worsted

industry, resulting in a sexual division of labor, which relegated them

to poorly paid and unrewarding work. (9) Forcibly dispersed by economic crisis in the worsted

industry, Yorkshire migrants in Hedley Smith’s

“Briardale” stories did not seek assimilation or a new life.

Rather, they maintained close connections with their culture in the West

Riding and returned when possible. (90) Through the ritual of sunning, they may have been

renegotiating their position with male co-workers and especially with

the weaving overlookers upon whom weavers depended to keep their looms

in repair. Still

the Rhode Island data on strike activities in 1906-1913 suggest that the

migration of Yorkshire worsted workers loosened the strict sexual

division of labor, increased the age of female workers, and opened new

opportunities for them in labor protest. In textile production, men

controlled all the machinery. (76) As a “right woman,” Nance

uses her physicality to show that she minds him no more than a

“bairn” or a puppy. 195. But no sooner have you recovered from one embarrassment than you

are thrown into the midst of another.” Burnley described the female

weavers as cheerful, spirited, and some of them good-looking.

85. Also see Steven Vertovec and Robin Cohen,

eds., Migration, Disaporas and Transnationalism (Cheltenham, UK, 1999),

pp. She then boards with

another family and becomes sexually active to great village scandal.

Even worse, she lands herself an older wealthy husband and leaves

Yorkshire for Rhode Island. Laybourn, The Centennial History of the Independent

Labour Party (Halifax, 1992), pp. Middle-class Yorkshire and

the trades unions widely condemned working wives. 19, 23, Mar. Childs, “Boy Labour in late Victorian and

Edwardian England and the Remaking of the Working Class,” Journal

of Social History 23, 4 (Summer 1990): 783-803.

1. Smith who had passed the eleven plus exams in Yorkshire was

refused admission to high school, 1997 interview.

57. (23) “Courters” hurried up their wedding day because

“a child was on the way,” but mothers who failed to wed in

accordance with working-class customs were commonly considered

disgraceful outcasts. Smith, “The Mill Folk,” pp. (80) Smith probably absorbed

accounts of this sunning ritual over pork pies and pints of bitter at

the Greystone Social Club. But Smith was never a textile worker; his

father had been an artisan craftsman. 23, 30, April

12, 1913; and Rhode Island Commission for Industrial Statistics,

Twenty-Seventh Annual Report (1914), pp. All rights reserved. Robin Cohen, Global Diasporas: An Introduction (Seattle, 1997),

pp. (96)

Historians James Barrett and David Roediger probe the contexts of ethnic

slurs and racialization and suggest that cultural insults [as in the

case of jickey] sometimes had “far more to do with class than with

ethnic identity.” (97) Briardale’s mill workers returned

Yankee scorn in rich measure by their contempt for American beer and

“shoddy” worsted cloth. 19 (Spring

1985): 48.

This ritual of male humiliation by working women constitutes

sexually charged “rough usage.” (83) Nonetheless, sunning was

performed within the context of a new lad being “fair game” to

his older mates, both lads and lasses. (68) The participation of women

workers in the Manningham strike defied their marginalization and

subordination in trade unions, but the strike failed. These older, experienced women workers provided the female

leadership during late nineteenth-century strikes.

The first thing he’d [a new lad] be doing would be … Maria Bottomley, “Women and Industrial Militancy: The

Heavy Woolen Dispute,” in Employers and Labour, pp. Priestley, Margin Released, pp. 57-9, 61.

42. 7, 12, 17-19, 28; April

4-7, 15, 1913; Providence Bulletin, Jan 11, 13, 1913; Labor Advocate

(Providence weekly), Jan. Maria Bottomley

argued that female strike leaders in 1875 won wage increases and

organized a weavers’ union for men and women in Batley and Dewsbury

near Huddersfield, Yorkshire. See photograph between pp. Jones, Workers At Play: A Social and Economic History of

Leisure, 1918-1939 (London, 1986) equates “leisure” with

cinema, church, drink, gambling, holidays, sport, hobbies, magazines,

and clubs but does not discuss sexual activities in dancehalls or

courtship. English labor historians heralded the

Manningham strike as the catalyst for the formation of the Independent

Labour Party in 1893. (85) No woman weaver was

supposed to touch or adjust her looms, although many did to speed their

work. 17-18. The young victim is dragged away from the patriarchal weave

shed and other men by a group of women workers, the mature and

newly-married teaching the younger how to proceed. (49)

78. Working wives with families in

Burnley, Lancashire, practiced similar family limitation, Diana Gittins,

The Fair Sex: Family Size and Structure in Britain, 1900-1939 (New York,

1982), pp. 36.

77. Tony Jowitt, “The Retardation of Trade Unionism in the

Yorkshire Worsted Textile Industry,” J. 60-61.

That oil can was close to hand. Texts carefully

positioned in Anglo- American contexts provide new perspectives on the

sexuality of working women, not as victims or objects, but as active

players in gender and class conflicts. (21)

Priestley defended female mill workers who went about having their

raucous “fun.” As he put it: “There was nothing sly,

nothing hypocritical, about these coarse dames and screaming lasses, who

were devoted to their own men, generally working in the same mill, and

kept on ‘courting’, though the actual courtship stage was over

early, for years and years until a baby was due, when they married. Frank Mort, Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-Moral Politics in

England since 1830 (London, 1987), pp. 11.

Majewski’s analysis of “Love, Sex, and the State of

Marriage” in chapter 6 demonstrates that marriage and sexuality in

the “ethnic romance” is often a metaphor for sustaining

national authenticity, pp. Priestley’s mother,

who died after his birth in 1894, and grandparents on each side were

mill workers, “both men and women,” a “solid steady

sort.” His school teacher father “plucked my mother, my real

mother, about whom I know nothing except she was high-spirited and

witty, from the clogs and shawls ‘back o’t mill’, a free

and easy, rather raffish kind of working-class life, where in the grim

little back-to-back houses they shouted and screamed, laughed and cried,

and sent out a jug for more beer.” (20) At sixteen, Priestley

became a junior clerk with Helm and Company of Bradford, exporters of

wool tops to manufacturers on the Continent and “even as far as

Rhode Island.” He recalled avidly watching the “dressing-up,

display, showing off, pursuit and capture” during promenades of

“lads and girls” at Bradford’s summer concerts. (54) Male family members pressured young women to join unions

and often paid their dues but allowed them no role in union activities.

(55) The majority of low paid, young females in the spinning and weaving

departments remained unorganized, while skilled male workers such as

wool sorters and dyers had strong craft unions. (94)

82. Jowitt, “Retardation,” in Employers and Labour, p.


96. and to feel that life and limb are not really in

peril. (41) On the

whole, sexual tensions during nineteenth-century industrial change

seemed to victimize females. June Hannam, “‘In the Comradeship of the Sexes Lies

the Hope of Progress and Social Regeneration’: Women in the West

Riding ILP, c. 42-3, 54-61, quote, p. 117-36.

47. 152, note # 56, 230-5. (86) The oil in the can itself was relatively clean, but

smearing lubrication for machinery on the human body is ritual

pollution. 59-63, 66, More Yankee

Yorkshiremen; Yankee Yorkshirewomen, pp. Insisting on his rights as master of the house in

the late nineteenth-century mill village of Wilsden, Yorkshire, he

spanks his impudent teenage daughter Martha like a child on her bare

backside in front of the family. Throwing

the terrified lad down and pinning his arms–one with her ample

bosoms–and holding his legs, they can do with him as they like. 78-9, More Yankee Yorkshiremen, and as cited below in

the typescript, “The Mill Folk.” For calculating and prudish

Yankee women, see “The Lion and The Eagle,” typescript, pp.

92-94, 109-10, 114.

61. Smith, “The Mill Folk,” pp. 57, and of Bertha Stott, “The

Black Sheep,” p. B. Such boisterous behavior in pre-factory mill villages occurred

only among men and boys except for women’s participation in

“Riding the Steng,” part of the Yorkshire charivari tradition,

Lawson, “Manners, Customs, Sports and Pastimes,” Progress in

Pudsey, pp. ix-xii.

Women weavers in Yorkshire and in North Providence mill villages

used sexual humiliation to discipline their male co-workers in the weave

shed through a late nineteenth-century custom called

“sunning.” In his memoirs, J. But with the outbreak of World War I in 1914,

Yorkshire migrants shifted their energies to homeland mobilization,

fierce patriotism, and the assertion of a more exclusive

“English” identity. 128 and 129 in Ben Turner’s,

Short History of the General Union of Textile Workers (Heckmonewike,

Yorkshire, 1920) of the 1891 Manningham strike committee with sixteen

women and eleven men.

74. On Salt, Reynolds, “Reflections,” in Jowitt, Model

Industrial Communities, pp. 29-39,

especially p. A

textual and contextual appraisal of ethnic fiction about Yorkshire

immigrant life in New England set in the early twentieth century can

deepen an understanding of gender and class by providing glimpses of the

elusive world of female working-class sexuality. Michael J. Joanna Bornat, “Lost Leaders: Women, Trade Unionism and

the Case of the General Union of Textile Workers, 1875-1914,” in

Angela V. They chase the lad as if they were

foxhounds and he the fox to be torn apart when caught for sport.

Galloping after him in a pack–hair tossing, skirts flying–they catch

him with anticipatory shrieks of laughter knowing what is to come. 46-50, 55.

Labor historian Tony Jowitt, comparing the robust labor activity in

the Lancashire cotton industry with late nineteenth and early twentieth

century Yorkshire, ascribes the “retardation” of union

organization largely to the vast numbers of low-paid, young female

workers who dominated weaving and spinning. (67) Many other women raised crucial strike

funds and joined in crowd actions that led to the harassing and stoning

of members of the Board of Directors. 203, 209.

In the Lancashire cotton textile industry, even well-organized

women weavers and carders who reported sexual bullying and mistreatment to their trade union officials found them to be reluctant, problematic

allies. Deirdre Busfield, “Skill and the Sexual Division of Labour

in the West Riding Textile Industry, 1850-1914,” in Employers and

Labour, pp. Many women cotton weavers,

who feared public shaming as victims of sexual violation or blacklisting

as troublemakers, responded by changing jobs and warning other women.

Lancashire working women apparently did not confront abusers directly or


31. “Coortin Days,” John Hartley, Yorkshire Lyrics: Poems

Written in the Dialect as Spoken in the West Riding of Yorkshire (London, 1898), pp. A perceptive reviewer of Smith’s second collection of

short stories suggested that like D.H. And I was! For that is the way Nature

plans it, making it up to women for all the spiteful things she heaps

on them otherwise. diss., University of

Essex, 1986), p. His days of intimidating the women of his

family with his aggressive sexuality are over. Smith wrote over a dozen unpublished novellas,

including a three-part trilogy “The Millmaster,” “The

Tongue-Tied Town,” and “The Lion and the Eagle” set in

his fictional mill village of “Briardale.” The published work,

correspondence with his publisher, a transcript of the 1997 taped

interview with his children, and the cited e-mails are in the archives

of the American Textile History Museum, Lowell, MA. Rudolph Vecoli called for more clarification of the lived and

imagined culture of ethnicity in “Comment: We Study the Present to

Understand the Past,” The Journal of American Ethnic History 18

(Summer 1999): 115-25. Blackburn, In and Out the

Windows: A Story of the Changes in Working Class Life 1902-1977 in a

Small East Lancashire Community (Burnley, UK, 1978); Ben Turner, About

Myself, 1863-1930 (London, 1930); James Lawson, Letters to the Young on

Progress In Pudsey During the Last Sixty Years (Stanningley, UK, 1887).

94. Rowland T. 35-6. 112, The Yankee Yorkshireman.

Yet some lasses rejected contact with “t’ lads” for

fear of entrapment by marriage into mill life. In 1851, of married women who

worked in textiles 29 percent were over the age of thirty-five, while in

1881, 63 percent of women working in textiles [presumably as weavers]

were over thirty-five. (32) Classic oral histories, such as

Elizabeth Roberts’s 1984 study of Lancashire working-class

sexuality, emphasized repression and ignorance, reporting that “sex

was not fun” for working-class women. For condemnation of

“wedding” out of class, see Aunt Sarah Jane Denby,

“Wedding Dress,” p. His intense embarrassment at the unseemly staring

and unheard comments on his person suggests a sexual shaming as well as

class impudence. On Lancashire immigrants in Rhode Island, Paul Buhle, “The

Knights of Labor in Rhode Island,” Radical History Review 17

(Spring, 1978): 39-73; Mary H. My thanks to Felicity Harrison for this insight.

58. For the passionate, experienced nature of Yorkshire mill

lasses’ sexuality, see Emma Briggs in “Uprooted,” p. The punishment for not

being a fully developed male in their eyes is the oil can.

20. Sinke, Dutch Immigrant Women, p. Ittmann, Work, Gender and Family, pp. In fact such were wed, except

[for] the outward ceremony at church….” (26) As late

nineteenth-century Yorkshire dialect poet John Hartley wrote:

… 35-6.

35. III (Cambridge, MA 1996), pp.

128-9.. Female agency involved in Anglo-American sexual customs and gender

conflicts, reenacted in the fictional Rhode Island mill village of

“Briardale” and verified in Yorkshire memoirs, provides

suggestive evidence on the historic experiences of working-class

sexuality. 21, 29.

71. Lawrence, Smith understood that

sexual attachments were the glue that bonded society, Gordon E. (78)

Historians Charlotte Erickson and Rowland T. Hammerton used

dialect poetry and prose as well as newspapers and court records to

probe the nature of turn of the century marital conflicts based on male


8. 7, 1891; Turner, Short History, pp.


89. For a more optimistic view based on middle-class

feminist activism in Leeds and Bradford, see Hannam, “‘In the

Comradeship of the Sexes,” pp. Certainly

this was the case in the Briardale fiction. 8.

33. Joanna Bornat’s concept of the marginalized lives of

Yorkshire working women offers an explanation for the sexual activities

of these mill lasses. When he tried to send her home, she

reported the incident to the office, and the overseer himself was

dismissed. 74 in The Yankee Yorkshireman. (40) In the late nineteenth century, letters to the Yorkshire

Factory Times reported an incident of an overseer disciplining one young

female spinner by throwing up her skirts and smacking her with his hand,

which her family viewed as a sexual assault. Cohen, Global Diasporas, pp. (82)

Hedley Smith rooted his Briardale stories in the immigrant villages

of North Providence but not inside the factories on which those

communities depended and where textile workers primarily experienced the

intersection of class, gender, and culture. 317-21.

41. 60.

The history of sexuality has been primarily interpreted in a

middle-class context, often embedded in the private world of family

life. Smith explored the

themes of cultural and mutual class antagonism in his fiction. Joanna Bornat, “‘What About That Lass of Yours Being

in the Union?’: Textile Workers and Their Union in Yorkshire,

1888-1922,” in Leonore Davidoff and Belinda Westover, eds., Our

Work, Our Lives, Our Words (Totowa, NJ, 1986), pp. Typically “when young people had

fallen into sin,” their employers expected them to marry or quit.

Still, wives dependent on their husbands’ earning at Saltaire

stoutly refused to use the mills’ washing and bathing facilities as

inconvenient and an “invasion of their privacy.” (47) Strict

regulation of behaviors in both factory and dwellings, supported by

middle-class outrage at youthful activities in dance halls and outside

controlled “parks” and leisure grounds, indicated intense

anxiety about expressions of working-class sexuality. Mary H. (39) Young factory lads

developed nineteenth-century rituals of sexual humiliation and

“shouted naughty and pert obscenities,” when

“lassies” in textile mills removed their stockings before

work, and then pulled up the clothes of female sleepers during rest

periods. 1890-1914,” in Jane Rendall, ed., Equal or

Different: Women’s Politics, 1800-1914 (Oxford, 1987), pp. But Smith’s unpublished novella, “The Mill

Folk” also reveals an awareness by women of their sexual powers and

their willingness to use their eroticism as agency. On the racialization of Italian immigrants, Barrett and

Roediger, “Inbetween Peoples,” p. Labor activist Ben Turner’s account of the

Manningham strike in which he played a key role included his keen

appreciation of the “brave” but nameless women who outnumbered

men on the strike committee. “Old Harriet,” who

taught the new girls, warned Maggie against the dangers of the machinery

and of the “cheeky buggers” among the mill boys. (25) Some of these Yorkshire

customs had deep roots in pre-factory mill villages. In early

nineteenth-century Yorkshire, villagers regarded “older

courters” as “man and wife. (18) In Hedley

Smith’s unpublished novella, “The Mill Folk,” Martha

Denby bragged to her niece that as a mill lass she had also controlled

access to her body. Sam Knowles, a weaving

overlooker, likened the experience of bedding them to cuddling so many

“razor blades.” (72) Often cast as moral hypocrites, Yankee

women were either prudish or sexually calculating, while Yorkshire

lasses embraced sexual encounters with men spontaneously, eagerly, and


James Burnley, a reporter for the Bradford Observer, reflected the

anxieties of the middle classes in his depictions of saucy behavior by

factory women. See Ittmann, Work, Gender, and Family, pp. Also the

description of Cissie Petty, Yankee Yorkshirewomen, p. 90-6.

University of Massachusetts, Lowell

6. 43-72 in J. Sinke, Dutch Immigrant Women in the United States, 1880-1920

(Urbana, IL, 2002). 149-53.

65. Nicola Reader, Ph.D. It would seep through the lad’s pants; he cannot return

unwashed to the mill. For recent work on gender and the family in immigration,

Suzanne M. “Of course I had my fun with the lads in my

time. Blewett, “Diversities of Class Experience and the

Shaping of Labor Politics: Yorkshire’s Manningham Mills Strike,

1890-1891 and the Independent Labour Party,” forthcoming in Labor

History 47 (November 2006): 511-35.


49. In a 1907 case, the victim

slapped the face of the offender. B. He is soiled. See “English Village in Rhode Island,” Providence

Tribune, Nov. Knowles is referring to Minetta

Sweet, in “The Wise Child,” More Yankee Yorkshiremen, pp. Jeffrey Weeks, Sex, Politics and Society: The Regulation of

Sexuality Since 1800 (London, 1981), pp. Karl Ittmann, Work, Gender and Family in Victorian England (New

York, 1995), pp. For a fuller analysis of Yorkshire

migrants in New England and the literature of Hedley Smith, see Mary H.

Blewett, Migration Lived and Imagined (Urbana, forthcoming).

45. RI), November 28, 1974. Jan Lambertz, “Sexual Harassment in the Nineteenth Century

English Cotton Industry,” History Workshop Journal, no. Yorkshire Factory Times, February 14, December 19, 1890.

32. His stories also

drew upon close ties to his mother and grandmother, both weavers, and

their friends and neighbors in Yorkshire and Rhode Island. On Bentley, Eric Ford, “Phyllis Bentley: Novelist of

Yorkshire Life,” Contemporary Review v. At

eighteen, Turner began courting his wife at the same mill where he

worked. 100. 207-233, and Maria

Bottomley, “Women and Industrial Militancy: The 1875 Heavy Woolen

Dispute,” in Employers and Labour, pp. Daniel Bender, “‘Too Much of Distasteful

Masculinity’: Historicizing Sexual Harassment in the Garment

Sweatshop and Factory,” Journal of Women’s History, 15

(Winter, 2004): 91-116.

18. For the quote and the general acceptance of paternalism along

the lines of Saltaire in the West Riding, D. 46-50 and on middle-class views of female

working-class sexuality, Jane Lewis, Women in England, 1870-1950: Sexual

Divisions and Social Change (Bloomington, IN, 1984), pp. (61) Some married women were experienced menders (burlers),

highly skilled but not highly paid needlework. Adjusting and repairing machinery was

skilled work strictly reserved for men. delivering

[filled bobbins] to the women at the looms in the weave shed…. Not a flaw in your whole being escapes

them. James Hammerton’s Cruelty and Companionship: Conflict in

Nineteenth-century Married Life (London, 1992) remains the best study of

English working-class marriage, see chapters 1, 2. Burnley, “The Dance Halls,” “Out in the Streets

All Night,” Phases of Bradford Life, pp. only just recently wed, flung

herself across his chest. Historians of immigration to the U.S. Memo of personal conversation with Bart De Wilde, participant

in Global Textile Workers conference, Amsterdam, November 2004. Berthoff, British Immigrants in Industrial America,

1790-1950 (Cambridge, 1953) and Charlotte Erickson, Invisible

Immigrants: The Adaptation of English and Scottish Immigrants in

19th-Century America (Ithaca, NY, 1990 reprint of 1972 edition) and

Leaving England: Essays on British Emigration in the Nineteenth Century

(Ithaca, NY, 1994).

In Smith’s Briardale tales, mill villagers in Yorkshire

expected working-class lads and lasses to have “their fun”

until a mutually desired pregnancy led to a chapel wedding. [F]rom now on I felt

that somehow I was stronger…. 163-5; Jacquelyn Dowd

Hall, et. 122-44.

[a] whole crowd of women and lasses same as a pack of fox hounds in

full scent, only noisier, [went] galloping across the field, their

skirts flying and their hair tossing and their scarves streaming in

back of them…. Ittmann briefly noted the ritual of sunning and female bawdy conduct as “sexual antagonism,” Work, Gender and Family, pp.

224, 232-3.

Memoirs of working-class life in early twentieth-century English

textile centers recount as a matter of course the weddings of pregnant

brides as a result of sexual experimentation during courting. Patrick Joyce, Work, Society and Politics: The Culture of the

Factory in Later Victorian England (Brighton, 1980).

69. Lawson, Progress in Pudsey, pp. 86, 89.

40. P. (37)

10. Female spinners, facing faster speeds and

additional frames to tend, cursed their young tormentors among the

bobbin boys but feared sexual harassment from overlookers or senior

foremen. 154-6.

68. Once well oiled, the women rub his

genitals with hard hands and rough movements until they judge the job

well done. “The Mill Folk,” depicts the

Yorkshire ritual of sexual humiliation reenacted by female immigrant

weavers who were challenging the foundations of emerging sexual

patriarchy in a North Providence mill village. Priestley, Margin Released, p. Cotton Factory Times, August 2, 1907, courtesy of Alan Fowler.

28. In “A Day at the Mill,” published in 1871, he

described his humiliation during a visit to a Bradford worsted mill.

“On first entering [the weave shed], it seems as if some accident

would be sure to befal [sic] you…. 61.

84. (89) While represented as high drama by Smith, the sunning

ritual of young lads joined other customs of initiation in late

nineteenth-century working-class culture.

76. (16) Smith’s fictional

accounts are supported by historian Karl Ittmann who cited illegitimacy rates in Bradford as “fairly constant” between 1851 and 1881

averaging between 6 and 8 percent, while female-controlled networks of

sex information and abortion became the major means of family limitation

in late nineteenth-century Yorkshire. (17) Female subculture made

abortion an accepted part of working-class life. 11.

Smith’s narratives reveal the social scripting of sexual

behaviors among the “lads” and “lasses.” His fiction

also portrays conflicts and tensions among working-class men and women

and the uses of patriarchy in controlling working women and unmarried

lasses. 207-33.

56. These sources include James Burnley, Phases of Bradford Life: A

Series of Pen and Ink Sketches (Bradford, UK, 1871) and Looking for the

Dawn: A Tale of the West Riding, (London, 1874, reprinted New York,

1986); J. (45) Indeed, courters had

free access to secluded woods and village lanes in the early nineteenth

century. The antagonism between husband

and wife festered. See the descriptions of Bessie King, “The Conscience of

Mr. Elizabeth who entered the mills at thirteen in 1915 could

observe the mill at night because her father also served as watchman and

the family occupied housing on the mill grounds, Blackburn, In and Out

Windows, pp. King,” p. 37-8, 42-8. Despite some

largely ambivalent support for female suffrage, the ILP joined the trade

unions as another ground for the marginalization of working-class

females. Between fifteen and eighteen as they reached puberty, young women

became throstle or ring spinners, carders, and weavers. Smith, “The Mill Folk,” pp. (73) Smith’s marriage to Carmen Fowler, a Yankee

schoolteacher with kinship ties to Maine and the “second”

Mayflower, fed the cultural and personal conflicts central to the

Briardale fiction. It is not a mere passing examination that you are the victim of,

but an unmitigated, unblushing, microscopic stare, which you are not

likely to forget to the last moment of your existence; and the worst

of it is you are unable to retaliate. E-mail, Portia Smith Thompson, Feb. B. 141-64.

Hedley Smith sought to capture the culture of Yorkshire migrant

people in the early twentieth century, although his middle-class values

dictated many of his interests. Turner, About Myself, pp. (70) Gender antagonisms and marginalization could prompt

informal uses of female power.

By Mary Blewett

73. In retaliation and partly for his

refusal to let her continue her schooling, Martha threatens the family

welfare by withholding her wages as a weaver. have debated

whether or not female immigrants represented the “arch-conservators

of tradition.” (84) If so, these Yorkshire immigrant weavers were

actively choosing which traditions to conserve and use for their own


51. Some young women in Bradford, however,

confronted abusive overlookers individually. Let’s see what he’s got; he’s “nobbut” half a man. For example, Andrew Davies’s study based on early

twentieth- century oral history and other sources in Lancashire,

Leisure, Gender, and Poverty: Working-Class Culture in Salford and

Manchester, 1900-1939 (Buckingham, UK, 1992), ignores sexuality, while

Stephen G. “The Wise Child,” pp. 59-60.

86. In the reminiscences of a

“Bradford Mill Girl,” Maggie Newbery, from the rural East

Riding of Yorkshire, became a scared half-time mill worker in 1913. (75) The novella also includes an account of

the sexual dismissal by his daughter- in-law Nance of the ageing

Grandfather Denby, greedily staring at her swinging breasts as she

washes herself in the kitchen. (77) He recalled his own public

encounters with female weavers in pre-1914 Bradford.

72. (36)

These lasses embrace sexual encounters with men without hesitation or

shame, a reflection of Yorkshire views on their “essential”

female natures. (93) Yorkshire migrants working

in the early twentieth-century mill villages of Rhode Island found

themselves pitted against a hostile Yankee society, whose leaders ran

the state and most of its economic enterprises. (31)

81. Laybourn, “The Emergence of the

Independent Labour Party in Bradford,” International Review of

Social History 20, 3 (1975): 313-46 and Keith Laybourn, “The

Manningham Mills Strike, December 1890 to April 1891,” in D. Cassidy, ed., v. The Briardale fiction starkly contrasts the passionate

heterosexual eroticism of Yorkshire lasses with desexualized Yankee

women. 153-170.

… The behaviors and customs of Yorkshire working-class women

reveal their uses of individual and collective activities to define

their female adulthood and to confront on their own terms both gender

and class conflicts in the family, the workplace, and the trade union.

Literary texts carefully interpreted within appropriate primary sources

and historiographical contexts may reveal additional behaviors among

other marginalized workers, under-represented in formal labor activities

and hidden from view.

4. 176-7, 184.

The symbolism of the sunning ritual as reconstructed in

Smith’s “The Mill Folk” is richly sexual and deeply

abusive. (52) Both paternalist

employers and skilled unionists in worsted factories deliberately

perpetuated this situation by denying craft training and union activity

to women. Unmanly tears streak his face, his flesh wincing from the

pain and the public humiliation by females. 130-1.

91. A. (69) But women workers, whatever the degree of

their activism, could not vote for Labour Party candidates. (65)

In Smith’s fictional version of sunning, he imagines

collective female action overpowering a new lad, displaying,

denigrating, handling, and dirtying his genitalia. 10, 2002.

92. (28) One day

in 1915, now a full-time spinner working on yarn for Army uniforms, she

was dreaming of a different life while neglecting her machines, when a

co-worker asked her, “Nay Maggie, you were miles away. Judy Giles, “‘Playing Hard to Get’:

Working-Class Women, Sexuality and Respectability in Britain,

1918-1940,” Women’s History Review, I (Spring 1992): 239-55.

70. For references to shoddy meaning adulterated worsted made of

cotton and wool, “Squire Widdop’s Wooing,” The Yankee

Yorkshireman pp. 67-72.

16. Smith, “The Mill Folk,” pp. 10, 1974, possession of

author. Berthoff, have

represented nineteenth-century English immigrants to the United States as easily acculturated into American society and thus socially

“invisible.” (8) In contrast, Hedley Smith’s fictional

world of Briardale reflects an early twentieth-century cultural and

labor diaspora driven by specific late nineteenth-century economic

circumstances. 237-8.

Women weavers were defending themselves against the condemnatory

scrutiny of strangers, such as Burnley, who characterized them to the

middle-class public. (56) Between 1851 and

1881, only about 20 percent of all married women in Bradford with one

child under the age of five worked outside the home. Women, empowered by their sexuality,

acted as the potential or actual arbiters of power within the family.


79. [A]fter a while you are able to

watch the machinery … (34) Ittmann’s study of fertility in

mid-Victorian Bradford, Yorkshire, questioned the prevalence of

working-class sexual prudery and reticence, pointing to a late

nineteenth- century tradition of female bawdiness and open sexual

antagonism in Yorkshire. (59) Indeed, as Ittmann argued, “the pace of

fertility decline continued to increase in Bradford up to the First

World War.” (60) By the first decade of the twentieth century

married women represented between 10 and 15 percent of the total worsted

labor force. 28-37.


48. A Jowitt and A.J McIvor,

eds., Employers and Labour in the English Textile Industries, 1850-1939

(London, 1988), pp. Arguing that the family became “a

contested ground” as a result of late nineteenth- century economic

crisis, Ittmann cited incidents of working-class men engaged in nude

foot-racing and swimming that attracted groups of female mill workers,

scandalizing the middle class. 104-119, esp. His vision of Briardale is a

rich deposit of the persistent uses of Yorkshire dialect and social

customs to counter the traditional “invisibility” of English

immigrants and provide evidence on the experiences of courtship and

sexuality in ethnic culture. 15, 1912.

59. 11, 12, 14, 16-17, 21, 24-25, 28, 30; Feb. (66) As former worsted workers, the

striking men and women weavers possessed special skills for producing

silk velvets and expected better wages, not the drastic cuts that

precipitated the strike. Yorkshire lasses and older women

used their sexuality to define their female adulthood through sexual

experimentation during courtship, to discipline male aggressiveness and

patriarchy, and to advance their status as working women.

Yorkshire lasses experimented sexually with various partners but

with a different purpose from working-class female behaviors in

Lancashire. For example,

Grandfather Denby, the patriarchal father in Smith’s novella,

“The Mill Folk,” regards all women, including his faithful

wife, his daughters, and his daughters-in-law, as objects of his more or

less controlled lusts. 5, 12, 19, 26, Feb. The “safe

period” in the female fertility cycle was however misunderstood and

useless for birth control, Knight, “Women and Abortion,” p.


24. Drew, leader of the

Bradford weavers’ union. (2) In this essay,

examples of female agency and voice from industrial Yorkshire reveal far

greater gender conflict within this factory culture than Joyce

recognized. And it was still the

custom, in some mills if not in that particular one, for the women to

seize a newly-arrived lad and “sun”‘ him, that is, pull his trousers

down and reveal his genitals. Hedley Smith’s personal life shaped his erotic idealization of Yorkshire “lasses” and sensitized him to the social and

cultural chasms between the native-born and immigrants in Rhode Island

society. Daniel Bender, e-mail, Sept. In addition, the general decline of

apprenticeships in late nineteenth-century English industries created a

pool of undisciplined youths, eager to earn wages in semi-skilled jobs.

(92) Women weavers certainly wished to fend off disrespect from the

cheeky boys among whom the overlookers recruited their assistants. 69-72 and Patricia Knight, “Women and Abortion in

Victorian and Edwardian England,” History Workshop Journal, no. “Squire Widdop’s Wooing,” The Yankee

Yorkshireman, pp. xiii-xxvi, especially p. 74-5.

22. Studies of

specific Yorkshire strikes in 1868, 1875, 1876, and 1891 indicate that

women textile workers led by older, married weavers worked together to

resist wage cuts in spite of community disapproval. In return

Yankee disdain for working-class English immigrants produced an ethnic

slur distinct to southern New England: “jick” or

“jickey.” (95) It demeaned both Yorkshire and Lancashire

immigrants in Rhode Island’s cotton and worsted textile mills as

ignorant, dialect-speaking vulgarians. 60, More Yankee Yorkshiremen. 72-5.

21. (71) The men of Briardale scorned the sallow skin, long jaws,

sharp noses, and skinny bodies of Yankee females. (91) Women weavers

confronted overseers every day over the assignment of warps which

determined their weekly wages. 84-106.

Rank and file weavers initiated Bradford’s Manningham Mills

strike in 1890-91 against the advice of W. John, ed., Unequal Opportunities: Women’s Employment in

England, 1800-1918 (London, 1986) pp. One young

Yorkshire-born Briardale lass contemplated the power relations between

the sexes.

63. (1) Patrick Joyce defined class and gender relations in the

factory culture of Lancashire and of Yorkshire’s West Riding in the

late nineteenth-century as deferential, harmonious, and paternalistic ties, largely between employers and working men. Ittmann, Work, Gender and Family, pp. In response to declining wages

and recurrent depression in the worsted industry, a generation of

working-class wives who had found the means to control fertility largely

through abortion returned to weaving. (7)

Smith’s uses of village gossip overheard as a lad and cultivated as

an adult encouraged him to depict episodes of female sexuality through

his fictional fantasies and his descriptions of homeland sexual customs.

53. They shrieked with laughter as they gathered round,

and one of them, a big buxom lass … 3, 2005.

3. 12-52.

15. Some of these lads may have

had uncontrollable partial erections during the sunning ritual, another

measure of being “nobbut half a man.” (87) Satisfied, the

screeching women romp off, finished with their prey and having “had

their fun.” (88) Bewildered by the cruelty and wanton mistreatment,

the lad will never forget what ordinary women in his mill village are

capable of. But they faced taunts from their

employers, co-workers, families, and communities that equated female

militancy with being “brazen” and “having cheek:”

aggressive behaviors that questioned their moral “decency.”

(63) In other strikes, such as in 1868 and 1876 at Titus Salt’s

alpaca mills at Saltaire in Bradford, wool combers, weavers, and

spinners (men and women, boys and girls) cooperated to protest against

wage cuts. Laurence Gross, The Course of Industrial Decline: The Boott

Cotton Mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, 1835-1955 (Baltimore, 1993), p.

66; e-mail, September 5, 2005, Larry Gross to author.

36. As his

trousers come down and his genitals are exposed, the laughing women

gather around, evoking primal fears of castration. (48)

2. pp. 87-94, 158-165.

97. Bornat in “Lost Leaders,” in Unequal Opportunities,

pp. 20,

and Ruth Binns, “Squire Widdop’s Wooing,” pp. Barrett and David Roediger, “Inbetween Peoples:

Race, Nationality and the ‘New Immigrant’ Working Class,”

Journal of American Ethnic History (Spring 1997): 3-44, esp. H. For if they are right women they can always hold a

man by that he has between his legs, and make him dance to their tune

and follow to their leading for as long as they want. When

Maggie was nine in 1910, her father, a failed tenant farmer, relocated

his family of twelve children to Bradford where they could find work. Still,

her unsympathetic daughter-in-law Carmen disdained the Yorkshire

connection. 171-86.

Smith’s fiction explores the controlling power of patriarchy

and resulting female rebellion as well as acquiescence. Female weavers in Belgian cotton textile factories developed

more individual acts of sexual humiliation, which their male victims

called rape. Far fewer friendly societies that included women existed in

Yorkshire than in Lancashire, but some offered protections to women

workers. James, “Paternalism in

Mid-Nineteenth Century Keighley, pp. 7-9.

62. 127-8, 184-93.

Female working-class sexuality as represented in Smith’s

ethnic fiction can be compared with and verified by working-class

memoirs and reportorial accounts of the social conditions in the

Yorkshire worsted industry. Bradford Observer, Jan. Is it some

lad you’re thinking about?” “No it isn’t … 224-5.

Women’s work in the Yorkshire textile industry provides

another context in which to analyze material from Smith’s fiction

on the behaviors of Yorkshire lasses and lads who “had their

fun” prior to marriage. (51) Their marginalization from skilled work and

union activity prompted them to move actively toward female adulthood

and marriage, preparing them to leave the paid workforce unlike their

counterparts in Lancashire. However, the general shift in

women’s jobs and expectations during the interwar years of the

twentieth century resulted in new articulations of female sexuality and

the specifics of behavior. Judy Giles suggests that “playing hard

to get” as a strategy for accommodating female sexuality with

respectability offered some English working-class women an active

measure of self-assertion and identification. (30) Hedley

Smith’s short stories captured situations like these to reveal the

dilemmas and character of Yorkshire women, and they won the praise of

Yorkshire novelist Phyllis Bentley. I would find

myself breasting a tide of shawls, and something about my innocent

dandyism would set them screaming at me, and what I heard then, though

I was never a prudish lad, made my cheeks burn. James,

T. Projecting his sense of humiliation, Burnley denounced

in the strongest terms what he regarded as the vicious sensuality of

mill lads and lasses at local dance halls and in the streets at night.

(50) Frightened but fascinated, Burnley was observing the courtship

customs of the lasses and their lads.

34. For as long as

they remained textile workers, mill lasses could expect no advances in

skills or in wage rates or any role in changing their situation through

union activity. Priestley, Margin Released, p. But I were smart enough to know when to keep the gate shut…. 23-24, 1912;

Jan. 216-8, 221, 228. 4.

COPYRIGHT 2006 Journal of Social History

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

7. Then, when they’d had their fun, they broke and

scattered same as a flock of crows, and went galloping off across the

fields, screeching and laughing like demons …,” leaving the lad

wretched and sobbing. 63.

66. During the “Great War,” the

political allegiances of migratory Yorkshire people, who either left to

serve in the British military or stayed in Rhode Island and sent

donations, strengthened their connections to the Old Country. 104, 108-110, Martha

Hobson and Emily Binns in “Squire Widdop’s Wooing,” pp.

31, 52, The Yankee Yorkshireman, Barbara Craven in “The

Partnership,” p. Karen Majewski argued in Traitors and True Poles: Narrating a

Polish-American Identity, 1880-1939 (Columbus, OH, 2003) that Polish

language literature offered the possibility to the “community for

reading itself as Polish in an American context,” p. Their

daughter Portia once slipped into the house, declaring that she had

located evidence of her mother’s English roots in Yorkshire to

which her father replied dryly: “I always knew that I had married a

Yorkshire lass.” (74)

99. Karl Ittmann’s study of declining

fertility in Bradford based on data between 1851and 1881 discussed turn

of the twentieth-century working-class knowledge of birth control and

abortion including the uses of “penny royal” and other herbal

substances and the general availability of information on sexuality

among female worsted workers, Work, Gender and Family in Victorian

England (New York, 1995), pp. E-mail, Portia Thompson, September 26, 2000.

Copyright 2006, Gale Group. Even if forewarned by his more

experienced mates, the young victim could scarcely believe the actuality

of the ritual. Weddin is joyous,–its pleasur unstinted;

but coortin is th’ sweetest thing iver invented. 62-3.

39. Another letter from a woman

weaver, described the “tickling” of an overseer in a dark

corner of the weave shed, an intimacy required to get work. (43) Female cotton weavers in Lancashire feared losing their

jobs and turned to family and kin to confront weave room overlookers,

called tacklers, who sexually abused them verbally and physically.

Tacklers, usually brawny with rough language and manners, were however

regarded in Lancashire as skilled and respectable working men who

commonly bullied weavers and chose favorites. Phyllis Bentley to Hedley Smith, Oct. Employed

as an accountant and business manager, Smith’s fiction explores

class structure but not outright class conflict or labor activity. 196-99, 105.

37. On labor conflicts, Providence Daily Journal, Nov. W. 163.

Regardless of the strength of trade union patriarchy and corporate

paternalism backed by intense middle-class anxiety about working-class

sexuality, female textile workers acted to defend themselves. (6) His stories,

which are based both in the region around Bradford, Yorkshire and in the

exclusive ethnic enclave of fictional “Briardale” set in

Greystone and four surrounding mill villages, yield vignettes of the

historic experience of female heterosexuality among Yorkshire working-

class people. His wife’s refusal to leave her maternal home in

North Scituate, RI, and her threats to divorce him, prevented Smith from

getting better-paid, more interesting jobs in livelier locations. (24) The courtship and marriage of Yorkshire union

leader Ben Turner followed this pattern, although as a respectable union

man his memoirs omitted any mention of pre-marital sexuality. (99)

Having been themselves racialized as “ignorant jickeys,” they

seemed able to step outside, at least in 1912-1913, the racial heritage

of British imperialism. Reynolds, “Reflections on Saltaire,” in Jowitt,

Model Industrial Communities, p. Newbury, Picking Up the Threads, pp. An overlooker is a foreman. But for a

lass to use sexuality to climb out of her class or for her to be

educated beyond village norms led to public denunciations of the upstart

as a whore or of her family as “uppity.” (15) Mill lasses

learned from each other ways of countering conception, for example with

herbal abortificients such as pennyroyal. (4) As a lad of fourteen, Hedley

Smith arrived in Rhode Island with his family in 1923, twenty years after the rebuilding of Greystone by a Yorkshire-based worsted firm.

Without classes to attend, the teen-aged Hedley with his brother Sam,

who was not allowed to enter the local mills, listened to “front

porch stories” about the bitter regrets and experiences of parents,

friends, and neighbors forced to relocate to New England from an

economically declining Yorkshire. In the paternalist ideology of

mid-nineteenth century Yorkshire, the working- class home and its

harmonious domestic arrangements were central to industrial order. According to sociologist Robin Cohen,

the “old country” for such migrants becomes a “notion

often buried deep in language, religion, custom or folklore” in

ethnic culture and literature. (35)

25. (44)

Titus Salt, owner of the 1853 model paternalist village of Saltaire in

Bradford, regarded the pre-industrial village with its beer, lust, and

freedom of moors and fields as the source of riotous Chartist and

anti-factory agitation in the 1830s and 1840s. Ittmann, Work, Gender and Family, pp. There were some

old traditions and customs that he’d have to go through before he was

accepted as one of them, that would hurt him in body and spirit alike

…, like being ‘sunned’….

Evidence of female victimization, however, predominates in many

other studies and personal accounts. A

young beginner was always fair game to his older mates, lads and

lasses alike, and the women were the worse of the two. Smith’s portrayal of

sexual tensions within the family extended to relationships within the


67. (12) Daniel Bender used ethnic fiction and

working class memoirs to probe the varied responses of immigrant garment

workers in the Northeast to sexual harassment by bosses and male

workers. (13) Observations by the state and private relief agencies

provide public constructions of the private lives of immigrant people.

More rare is evidence on sexual behaviors from within the ethnic

community, such as the fiction of Hedley Smith that portrays the

persistence of Yorkshire custom and behavior in New England mill


83. Jowitt, Model

Industrial Communities in Mid-Nineteenth Century Yorkshire (Bradford,

UK, 1986).

5. (27)

Chasing the terrified new lad out of the mill,

50. See his,

Witte boorden, blauke kielen: patroons en arbeiders in de belgische

textieInijverheid in de 19e en 20e eeuw, [Belgium]: Ludion: AMSAB:

Profortex, 1997.

54. During early Yorkshire

industrialization, violent sexual antagonism between the growing female

factory workforce in Bradford, Yorkshire, and “attacks by men on

women operatives,” were commonplace. Priestley, Margin Released, pp. This

“disorderly” public behavior by ordinary working women

transforms them into demons and crows, merciless and rending. The term appears as “the Jickeys” in Smith’s

“The Wise Child,” p. 22 and Ardis Cameron,

Radicals of the Worst Sort: Laboring Women in Lawrence, Massachusetts,

1860-1912 (Urbana, IL, 1993), pp. 58,


93. She forced her husband into a “serious rupture”

with his mother, breaking from his immediate family, depriving

Smith’s children of contact with their nearby grandparents, and

distancing Hedley from his brother Sam. 121-2.

64. Drew, leader of the West Riding Weavers’

Association, openly opposed the working wife. Also see

“jicki,” as used in southern Massachusetts and Rhode Island

textile centers in the 1930s and 1940s, Dictionary of American Regional

English, Frederic G. The published and

unpublished work remain the property of Portia Thompson, Wakefield, RI

and of Duncan Smith, Professor Emeritus, Department of German Studies,

Brown University, Providence, RI and are quoted with their permission,

e-mails, Nov. 170-1.

19. The once familiar faces of the weavers who now dominate

the situation are transformed. (14) The historiography of Yorkshire

working-class life and trade unionism provides another context within

which both fiction and observations can be interpreted. al., Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World

(Chapel Hill, NC, 1987), pp. She held his arms tight and her big bosoms

pinned him down to the ground while others caught hold of his legs,

which were thrashing about and held them still so that others could

get his trousers down….

“Aye, let’s see what he’s gotten,” they screamed, and “Nay, he’s

nobbut half a man at that,” and “Reach us the oil can here.” They had

a long spouted oil can with ‘em and they emptied it onto his privates

and rubbed it well in with hard hands and fingers and knuckles that

were used to kneading a bowl ‘o dough and did the same thing now with

his wincing flesh. 107, and R. (58) But marginalization had consequences, intensifying gender


55. 15, 2003.

This fictional bifurcation reflected in part the writer’s

troubled marriage. For a mill lass with

little future for advancement in the workforce, sexual experimentation

seemed the next logical step on the road to marriage and female

adulthood, while she turned over her Saturday wage packet to her family.

Indeed pregnancies among brides in mill villages were commonplace in

Yorkshire and Lancashire, but in the cotton industry wives worked and

joined in union activities.

80. Ittmann, Work, Gender and Family, pp. Ittmann, Work, Gender and Family, p. 72-75.

Smith’s fiction both confirms Ittmann and explores the erotic

power of female physicality from the point of view of both sexes.

Yorkshire men idealized and naturalized the passionate eroticism of

their lasses. Smith, “The Mill Folk,” pp. 6, 141-2, 129, see note #

168, 232-3.

75. Girls as young as eleven entered the worsted

mills. Hedley Smith published two collections of short stories The

Yankee Yorkshireman (1970), More Yankee Yorkshiremen (1974) and one

novella, Yankee Yorkshirewomen (1978) at Harlo Press, Detroit, MI, which

published ethnic fiction. But men and women weavers shared the oiling of their machinery in

post-Civil War American cotton mills, and presumably also in Lancashire

and Yorkshire. Priestley, Margin Released: A Writer’s Reminiscences

and Reflections (London, 1963); Maggie Newbery, Picking Up the Threads:

The Complete Reminiscences of a Bradford Mill Girl, edited by James

Ogden (Bradford, UK, 1993); Elizabeth K. James Burnley’s

sentimental 1874 novel about Chartist activity in Yorkshire, Looking for

the Dawn, also depicted casual night-time courtships of lads and lasses

in the countryside.

95. 1997 interview.

26. Newbury, Picking Up the Threads, pp. Lawson, Progress in Pudsey, “Courtship and

Love-Making” and “Old Time Weddings,” pp. They

may not have lived happily afterwards, but they saved themselves from

some unpleasant surprises.” (22) Priestley’s acculturated

observations of pre-World War I working-class female sexuality revealed

neither revulsion nor shame.

44. These women thus sent

a message of female power to the whole working-class community: lads,

lovers, husbands, co-workers, and overseers: all of them once

“cheeky buggers.” In doing so, sexual harassment, “a form

of gender policing, a capturing of sex and sexuality in search of power

and control,” was turned on its head. Bradford Observer, August 14, 22, 24, 25, 26, 31, September 1,

2, 1882.

The weavers, one and all, have their [mostly female] eyes upon you;

they are taking notes of and commenting upon your personal appearance,

and the cut of your garments. (57) As Joanna

Bornat pointed out, the opposition to and disapproval of occasional

female militancy from the General Union of Textile Workers (although

unionist Ben Turner supported female suffrage), from local union leaders

and male co-workers, and from working-class communities resulted in

“lost leaders” among women textile workers in the worsted

industry. Jowitt, and K. Especially relevant for this paper is Monika

Blaschke’s exploration of the life experiences of farm maids, their

refusal to allow legal restrictions on marriage to control their

sexuality or emigration, and local rituals with sexual overtones in

“‘No Way but Out’: German Women in Mecklenburg,” pp.

35-42 in Christiane Harzig, ed., Peasant Maids–City Women: From the

European Countryside to Urban America (Ithaca, NY, 1997).

38. (98) As labor activists in North

Providence, they seemed not only indifferent to American racialized

ethnic distinctions, especially the extreme racialization of Italian

workers in New England, but demonstrated their willingness to join with

these and other immigrant groups to achieve mutual class aims. (79)

98. (101) Yorkshire working

women, who became far more organized into textile unions by 1914, may

have experienced this shift.

Hedley Smith’s fiction represents sexual and emotional ties as

the primary bonds of social life. I’d learned a lesson unknown to myself…. Meanwhile, the

issues of state suppression of the political liberties of free speech

and assembly during the last month of the strike galvanized English

labor politicians and trade unionists to establish a genuine

working-class political party. Priestley and other

autobiographical accounts confirm Hedley Smith’s depictions of the

courtship behaviors of mill lasses and lads. 15, of Emma Briggs (perhaps based on Smith’s

mother), “Uprooted,” p. In fictional Briardale, heavy breasts, big hips, ample

“bums,” long, luxuriant hair, and fair, rosy “peaches and

cream” complexions define the male ideal of female beauty. (64) A strike at the Manningham mills in 1882 that

foreshadowed the great strike in 1890-91 united female and male silk

plush weavers who opposed wage cuts and bad conditions. Ethnic slurs mark the social

visibility of English immigrants, but these insults may also have been a

reaction to the vibrant trade unionism of English immigrants in both

cotton and woolen manufacture in southeastern New England. (3) The same appraisal

reveals significant continuity between Yorkshire and the New England

immigrants, despite assumptions of rapid assimilation.

Yorkshire immigrant Hedley Smith (1909-1992) wrote novellas and

published short stories to preserve the West Riding dialect and homeland

customs in the early twentieth-century mill village of Greystone in the

town of North Providence, Rhode Island. 214-38, esp. In a flash the lad is

alone, bewildered, and at their mercy. 60.

Studies of English working women, working-class leisure, the family

and its declining fertility, of motherhood and marriage, of divorce,

abuse, crime, and violence, of prostitution and purity movements, of

industrial paternalism and trade unionism offer little specific evidence

on female sexuality as agency. James R. Ittmann, Gender, Work and Family, p. At

twelve she worked half time as an unskilled doffer, excited at first,

then quickly exhausted and disillusioned. Thompson, “Homage to Tom Maguire,” Essays in

Labour History, Asa Briggs and John Saville, eds., (London, 1960):

276-315; J. These overlookers, always men, had once been weavers and

usually enjoyed lifetime employment at one mill. Rowley,

The Observer (Scituate. (33) In contrast, Jan

Lambertz suggested that in Lancashire cotton mills, working women

exchanged sexual information and tolerated “consensual sexual

play” between workers. Although his work focuses on migration

during the 1990s, Cohen explicitly questions whether the nation state

was ever historically able to contain “the wider socialities”

it sought to represent.

29. E. Lambertz, “Sexual Harassment in the Nineteenth Century

English Cotton Industry,” pp. Some of

that courting occurred on the mills’ loading docks with overhanging

roofs. Busfield, “Skill and the Sexual Division of Labour”

in Employers and Labour, pp. Burnley, “A Day in the Mill,” Phases of Bradford

Life, p. Reynolds, “Reflections,” in Jowitt, Model Industrial

Communities, pp. Smith, “The Mill Folk,” pp. 29-61.

Priestley’s easy ascription of the “sunning” custom

to pre-industrial village customs or to “traditional female

bawdiness” ignored the long-term sexual antagonism within Yorkshire

mill life and trade unionism. (81) They select a young

lad to be “sunned.”

Industrialization, especially nineteenth-century factory work,

challenged the patterns of working-class family life and the moral role

of women, which varied widely from region to region and from industry to

industry. 9-10, 29.

43. For middle-class antagonisms, see Smith, The Lion and the

Eagle,” unpublished novella.

23. Also, e-mail, Duncan

Smith, Sept. Also see, Weeks, Sex, Politics and

Society, pp. xxi. English historians, such as James Hammerton, have applied the

nineteenth-century term “rough usage” almost exclusively to

male actors.

90. Bornat, “Lost Leaders,” pp. 88.

87. 16, 19, 2002.

30. Priestley described

“sunning” as a mythic ritual. 230-3. 65,

Emily Waddington, “Wedding Dress,” pp. Reynolds,

“Reflections on Saltaire,” pp. Women weavers also faced intensifying work loads, arbitrary

fines, and pressure from overlookers eager for higher output to win


Spend Your Vacation In Grand Way At The Land Of Rising Sun

Shinjuku another major travel Japan Tokoy tourist destination of land of rising sun Japan. Fuji each year, and several of them are foreign tourists who come to take pleasure in the beauty of this massive mountain.

The author is the expert writer having vast experience about the travel industry. It is one of the best destinations in Japan.

To get here, just take a bus from the JR station to Fujinomiya Fujinomiya in Shizuoka Shin-go-gome. Although many drinks and good quality food sold in the huts in the cabins, which are very expensive. Mount Fuji is worshiped by all the Japanese people, and call it as “Fuji-san”. Fuji in the afternoon and rest in a hut before climbing to the summit at dawn. It is 2,400 m Regular cars are not allowed to drive to stations in August fifth. Fujinomiya-guchi Japan holiday route and most people begin to climb this route. All these things make a historical. Therefore, it is best to bring enough water and food with you. However, it is safe to climb this mountain at any time.

Author’s Bio: 

Depending on the altitude, the different paths are appointed as ten different stations. Kabukicho is well known for its exciting nightlife and dazzling. It has temples, historical buildings, museums and churches. Besides from this there are several attractions that are not known by tourists. Officially, he will climb Mt. That is the official climbing season. Fuji is the dream of many travelers. The shortest route is Mt. You can visit the park of Shinjuku Kabukicho Gyoen and. The trend is starting to climb Mt. Mount Fuji is Japan’s highest mountain. You can get many points of gambling games and casinos.

Kyoto is a popular place that has a mixture of all cultures. Most people come to Japan to visit big cities like Tokyo, Osaka, Mount Fuji and many more. It is also a volcano. During this time, all roads are crowded, but trust me, it’s best to climb Mt. They want to climb this mountain at least once in their lives. Its height scales at about 12,388 feet. Generally, it will cost up to ¥ 5000-7000 yen per night. Fuji only 1 July to late August. According to reports, it is suggested that about 3,00,000 people try to climb Mt. You can go to the fifth season (go-GOME), either a car or a bus.

Climbing Mt. Currently he is writing on various topics related to travel industry like: xian terracotta warriors, safari tours africa, shanghai tourism, tours to burma, laos tours etc.

‘Mountain huts’ is located between the seventh and the peak season. However, many people prefer to go at night with flashlights to reach the summit at dawn.

In terms of location is concerned, Fuji Mountain is about 60 kilometers southwest of Tokyo and the prefectures of Shizuoka, Yamanashi. Fuji at this time of year.

. In addition, the buses to go to the fifth stations are not operated regularly during the season.

However, you will always discourage climbing during the low season due to bad weather